Ph.D., Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, May
B.A. magna cum laude, Philosophy, Pacific Lutheran University, May 1979
Texas A&M University: Professor of
Philosophy; Associate Professor of Philosophy, September
1991 to May 2014; Assistant Professor of Philosophy,
August 1986 to August 1991
Stanford University: Acting Assistant Professor (Philosophy),
July 1985 to June 1986, and Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for the Study of
Language and Information, July 1984 to June 1986
Areas of Specialization
Metaphysics, Logic, Philosophy of Logic, Philosophy of
Mathematics, Philosophy of Religion
Other Areas of Interest and Research
20th Century Anglo-American Philosophy, History of Set
Theory, Knowledge Representation
Dame Center for Philosophy of Religion,
University of Notre Dame, 2016-17 (in residence)
Faculty Development Grant, Texas A&M, 2011-12 (spent
Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy,
Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany)
Faculty Development Grant, Texas A&M, Fall 2004
(spent at IFOMIS,
Summer Institute for Instructional Technology Innovation, TAMU, 2003
Computerized Logic Instruction Center at Texas A&M
University, TAMU, 2001
Faculty Development Grant, Texas A&M, Fall 1996 (spent at CSIRO, Melbourne,
National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for
College Teachers, 1991-92
Summer Research Grant, College of Liberal Arts, Texas
A&M, Summer, 1988
Research Fellowship, Notre Dame Center for
Philosophy of Religion, University of Notre Dame,
Spring 1988 (in residence)
National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Stipend,
Stanford University, 1984-86
57. “Modal Set Theory,” forthcoming in
O. Bueno and S. Sturgeon (eds.), The Routledge Companion
56. “The Argument from Collections.”
Forthcoming in T. Dougherty and J. Walls (eds.), Two
Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga
Project, Oxford University Press.
55. “Haecceities and Mathematical
Structuralism.” Forthcoming in Philosophia
with the Bootstrapping Objection to Theistic
Philosophical Quarterly, 53(1) (2016), 55-68.
53. “The Logic Daemon: Colin Allen's
Computer-based Contributions to Logic
Pedagogy”. Philosophy and
Computers 15(1) (Fall 2015) 41-45 (invited paper).
52. “Logic, Essence, and Modality.” (A critical review
of Bob Hale's Necessary Beings: An Essay on
Ontology, Modality, and the Relations Between Them.)
Philosophia Mathematica 23(3) (2015) 407-423.
Sets, ZFCU, and the Iterative
Conception.” Journal of Philosophy 111(2)
(2014) 57-83. (Pre-print.)
and Propositions Set Free” (with O. Bueno and
E. N. Zalta). Erkenntnis 79 (2014) 797-820. DOI:
Fundamental Theorem of World Theory” (with
Edward Zalta). Journal of Philosophical Logic
43(2) (2014) 333-363. DOI: 10.1007/s10992-012-9265-z.
Worlds,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta
(ed.), URL =
(First published in 2013. The active link that begins
this entry will always point to the latest version.)
Worlds Again,” Analysis 72(2)
Representation, the World Wide Web, and the Evolution of
Logic,” Synthese 182(2) (2011),
269–295; DOI: 10.1007/s11229‐009-9661‐2 (Preprint)
“Good Actions in Tourism” (with Tazim Jamal),
in J. Tribe (ed.), Philosophical
Issues in Tourism,
Clevedon, UK, Channel View Publications, 2009, 227-243.
Is Commitment with Expectation” (with James
Creel and Thomas Ioerger), in Proceedings of the
Twentieth International FLAIRS Conference, Menlo
Park: AAAI Press (2008), 50-55.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008
Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =
(This is a major update and revision of the Summer 2000
version of this article. The preceding link is to the latest
version, which incorporates relatively minor corrections
and revisions of the original 2008 version.)
42. “Modal Rigidity in the OntoClean
Methodology” (with William Andersen), in
A. C. Varzi and L. Vieu
Ontology in Information Systems: Proceedings of the
Third International Conference (FOIS-2004),
Amsterdam, IOS Press (2004), 119-127.
Semantic Integration,” in Y. Kalfoglou,
M. Schorlemmer, A. Sheth, S. Staab, M. Uschold (eds.),
Semantic Interoperability and Integration, Proceedings
Seminar 04391, Dagstuhl, Germany (2004).
Ontologies / Application Ontologies: Either / Or or
Both/And?” in P. Grenon, C. Menzel, and
B. Smith (eds.),
Proceedings of the Workshop on Reference Ontologies
and Application Ontologies, KI 2003, September 16,
2003, Hamburg, Germany. CEUR
Workshop Proceedings, vol. 94 (2004), ISSN
A Logic Standard for Semantic Integration”
Hayes), in A. Doan, A. Halevey, and N. Noy (eds.),
Semantic Integration, CEUR Workshop Proceedings,
vol. 82 (2003).
Theory,” in J. Euzenat, A. Gomez-Perez,
N. Guarino, and H. Stuckenschmidt (eds.), Ontologies
and Semantic Interoperability, CEUR Workshop
Proceedings, vol. 64 (2003).
Specification Language: Principles and
Applications” (with Michael
Grüninger), AI Magazine 24(3) (Fall
36. “A Formal Foundation
for Process Modeling” (with Michael Grüninger), in
C. Welty and B. Smith (eds.), Formal Ontology and
Information Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2001,
35. “An Adaptive Process Management System (APMS)” (with P. C.
Benjamin), in L. Nemes and J. Mo (eds.), Global Engineering,
Manufacturing and Enterprise Networks, Boston: Kluwer Academic
and Mathematical Objects,” in J. Bradley and
R. Howell (eds.), Mathematics in a Postmodern Age: A
Christian Perspective, Eerdmans Publishing Company,
2001. (This is a revised and expanded version of
“Theism, Platonism, and the Metaphysics of
of J. Copeland (ed.), Logic and Reality: Essays on
the Legacy of Arthur
Review 109(2) (April 2000).
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Summer 2000
Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2000/entries/actualism
31. “The Objective
Conception of Context and Its Logic,” Minds and
Machines 9 (1999) 29-56.
Form,” in E. Craig (ed.) Routledge
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 5,
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1998.
IDEF Family of Languages” (principal author,
with R. J. Mayer), in P. Bernus, K. Mertins, and
G. Schmidt (eds.),
Handbook on Architectures for Information
Systems, Springer-Verlag, 1998, 209-241.
28. “An Integrated Process Model Driven Knowledge Based System for Remote
Customer Support” (with J. Mo), Computers in Industry (1998) 171-183.
27. “Applying the Process Interchange Format (PIF) to a Supply Chain
Process Interoperability Scenario” (with S. Polyak, J. Lee, and
M. Gruninger). In A. Gomez-Perez and R. Benjamins (eds.),
Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and
Problem Solving Methods, ECAI'98, Brighton, England, August 1998.
Method Ontologies: A Foundation for Enterprise Model
Integration,” in M. Gruninger and Farquhar,
Ontological Engineering: Papers from the 1997 AAAI
Spring Symposium, Menlo Park, AAAI Press, Technical
Report SS-97-06, pp. 73-83.
25. “Situations and Processes” (principal author, with R. J. Mayer),
Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications 4(3)
(1996). DOI: 10.1177/1063293X9600400304
24. “A Situation Theoretic Approach to the Representation of
Processes” (principal author, with R. J. Mayer), in P. Bernus and
L. Nemes (eds.), Modelling and Methodologies for Enterprise
Integration, London, Chapman and Hall, 1996.
23. Entries on “Alethic Modalities” and “Type Theory,” R. Audi
(ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 1995.
a Method for Acquiring CIM Ontologies” (with
P. Benjamin, R. Mayer, and
N. Padmanaban), International Journal of Computer
8(3) (1995), 225-234. DOI:
21. “An Ontology and Process Description Method for Design and Implementation
of Information-Integrated Enterprises” (with R. Mayer and J. Hwang),
International Journal of Flexible Automation and Integrated Manufacturing 1
20. “IDEF3 Process Descriptions and Their Semantics” (principal author,
with R. Mayer and D. Edwards), in A. Kusiak and C. H. Dagli (eds.),
Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, ASME Press, 1994.
Formal Model of Single Agent Planning
Situations” (with R. Mayer, M. Erraguntla, and
J. Hwang), Journal of Systems
Integration 4(3) (1994), 219-241.
18. “Singular Propositions and Modal Logic,”
Philosophical Topics 21 (1993), 113-148.
Proper Treatment of Predication in Fine-grained
Intensional Logic,” in J. Tomberlin (ed.),
vol. 7: Language and Logic, 1993, Ridgeview Publishing Co., 1993, 61-87.
and Object Theory,” Philosophical
Studies 69 (1993), 195-208.
15. “Critical Review of E. Zalta,
Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality,”
Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3) (1992), 1146-1150.
14. “Representation, Information Flow, and Model Integration” (principal
author, with R. Mayer and L. Sanders), in C. Petrie (ed.),
Enterprise Model Integration: Proceedings of the First International Conference,
Cambridge, MIT Press, 1992, 131-141.
True Modal Logic,” Journal of Philosophical
Logic 20 (1991), 331-374.
Actualism and Singular Foreknowledge,”
J. Tomberlin (ed.)
Philosophical Perspectives, vol. 5: Philosophy of Religion,
Ridgeview Publishing Co., 1991, 475-507.
11. “Actualism, Ontological Commitment, and
Possible World Semantics,” Synthese 85
and Conceptual Change in Mathematics,”
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the
Philosophy of Science Association 2 (1990),
Basic Notion of Justification” (with Jonathan
Philosophical Studies 59(3) (1990), 235-261.
an Unsound Proof of the Existence of Possible Worlds,”
Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (1989), 598-603.
Numbers and the Relativity Argument,”
Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1988), 87- 98.
6. “Theism, Platonism,
and the Metaphysics of Mathematics,”
Faith and Philosophy 4 (1987), 365- 382; reprinted in
The Philosopher's Annual 10 (1987), 91-112, and in M. Beaty
(ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy,
University of Notre Dame Press, 1990.
A Complete, Type-free ‘Second-order’ Logic and
Its Philosophical Foundations,” (NB: 30MB PDF!) Report
No. CSLI-86-40, Center for the Study of Language and
Information, Stanford University, 1986.
4. “On Set Theoretic Possible Worlds,” Analysis 46(1) (March
the Iterative Explanation of the Paradoxes,”
Philosophical Studies 49 (1986), 37-61.
2. “Absolute Creation” (with Thomas V. Morris),
American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (1986), 353-362.
and the Burali-Forti Paradox,” The
Monist 67 (1984), 92-107.
Works under Review or Revision
“In Defense of the Possibilism-Actualism
Distinction”, currently under review.
“Logic with a Single Type”, currently under revision for resubmission.
“A New Axiomatic Semantics for RDF, RDFS, and
OWL” (A little work to do at the end.)
An updated “axiomatic
semantics” of RDF, RDF Schema, and the
various OWLs, based strictly on the W3C standards.
Inspired by the
first-order axiomatization of RDF, RDF Schema, and
DAML+OIL semantics by McGuinness and Fikes.
Mostly written in Fall 2005 when I was a visiting
Information Systems unit of the Mathematics
and Computing Technology division of The Boeing
Talks and Other Professional Activities
“A Structuralist Conception of Possible Worlds,” Ninth
Principia International Symposium, invited talk, Florianópolis,
Brazil, August 2015.
“Haecceities and Mathematical Structuralism,”
Colloquium in Logic, Philosophy of Science and
Philosophy, Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy,
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität, Munich, Germany,
18 June 2014.
“Actualism: Some Logic, Some Philosophy,” Colloquium in
Mathematical Philosophy, Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy,
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität, Munich, Germany, 26 June 2014.
“Problems with the Bootstrapping Objection,” Central
Division Meetings of the American Philosophical Association,
Philosophy of Religion Group, Chicago February 2014.
“Modal Realism and the Absolute Infinite,” History and Philosophy of
Infinity conference, Cambridge University, UK, September 2013.
“Logic with a Single Type: Motivations and
Metatheory,” invited lecture, UNILOG 2013 workshop, Between First and
Second Order Logic, Rio de Janeiro, April 2013.
“Wide Sets, ZFCU, and the Iterative Conception,” Midwest
Philosophy of Mathematics Workshop (MWPMW) 13, University
of Notre Dame, October 2012.
“Common Logic: Evolution and Metatheory,” invited
lecture, Université Paris-Sorbonne, Seminar on
Philosophy of the Web
Paris, France, April 2012.
“Common Logic and the Semantic Web,” keynote speaker,
PhiloWeb 2012, Workshop at the 21st World Wide Web
Lyon, France, April 2012.
“Wide Sets, ZFCU, and the Iterative Conception,” Munich
Center for Mathematical Philosophy,
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität, Munich, Germany, February
“Common Logic: Evolution and Metatheory,” Munich Center
for Mathematical Philosophy,
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität, Munich, Germany, December
“Structuralism and Haecceieties,” Society
for Exact Philosophy 2011 Conference, Winnipeg, May
“Strict Actualism and the Logic of the
Possible,” Oberseminar Logik und Sprachtheorie,
Wilhelm-Schickard Institut für Informatik, Tübingen University,
Tübingen, Germany, 6 July 2010.
“Common Upper Ontologies and Common Logic,”
The Logic and Cognitive Science Initiative
(“LACSI”) Conference on Ontology, North
Carolina State University,
26 September 2009.
“Two Arguments against Modal
Existentialism,” IU Logic Group, Indiana University,
“Common Logic: Motivations and Some Simple
Theory,” IU Informatics Group, Indiana University,
“Tutorial on Common Logic” (with Patrick Hayes and
Technologies 2008, San Jose, CA, May 2008.
“Comments on ‘Truth at a World for Modal
Propositions’,” American Philosophical
Association, Pacific Division Meetings, Los Angeles, March
“Possible World Semantics for the Strict Actualist:
Response to Nelson,” Symposium on Possible Worlds,
American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division
Meetings, San Francisco, March 2007
“Weblogic: Open Networks and the (Proposed)
Common Logic Standard” (with Patrick Hayes),
Technologies 2006, San Jose, CA, March 2006.
“A New Axiomatic Semantics for RDF, RDFS, and OWL,”
The Boeing Company, Seattle, WA, December 2005
“Extensionalism for Strict Actualists,”
Department of Philosophy, University of Washington, Seattle,
“Extensionalism for Strict Actualists,”
Philosophisches Seminar, Saarland University,
“Modal Rigidity in the OntoClean Methodology,” Fifth
International Conference on Formal Ontology and
Information Systems, Torino, Italy, November 2004
(co-authored with, and presented by, William Andersen.)
“SCL: A Logic Standard for Semantic Integration,”
Semantic Integration Workshop, Second International
Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2003), Sanibel Island,
Florida, October 2003.
“Application Ontologies / Reference Ontologies —
Either / Or or Both / And?”, Workshop on Application
Ontlogies vs. Reference Ontologies, 2003 German Conference
on Artificial Intelligence, Hamburg, September 2003.
and Philosophical Content on the Semantic Web,” Symposium on Formal
Ontology and Philosophical Content on the Semantic Web (invited
panelist), APA Pacific Meetings, San Francisco, March 2003.
“The Common Logic Standard,” Open Forum 2003
International Conference on Metadata Registries, Santa Fe,
New Mexico, January 2003 (invited talk).
“Ontology Theory,” Workshop on Ontologies and
Semantic Interoperability, European Conference on
Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2002), Lyon, July 2002.
“Modal Particularism,” Department of Philosophy, University of Texas,
Austin, November 2001
“A Formal Foundation for Process Modeling” (with Michael Gruninger),
International Conference on Formal Ontology and Information Systems
(FOIS-01), Ogunquit, Maine 2001 (delivered by Michael Gruninger)
“A Formal Semantics for the Knowledge Interchange Format,” Workshop
on the IEEE Standard Upper Ontology, International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Seattle, August 2001.
“An Adaptive Process Management System (APMS)” (with
P. C. Benjamin), 4th International Conference on Design of Information
Infrastructure Systems for Manufacturing 2000, International Federation
for Information Processing (IFIP), Melbourne, November 2000
(delivered by Benjamin)
“Modal Particularism and the Ground of Modal
Truth,” Society for Exact Philosophy 2000
Conference, Gainesville, March 2000.
“Applying the Process Interchange Format (PIF) to a Supply Chain Process
Interoperability Scenario” (with S. Polyak, M. Gruninger, and J. Lee),
European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI
1998), Brighton, England, August 1998 (delivered by Polyak).
“Propositions and Properties: Comments on Jubien,” Symposium
on Intensional Logic, Association for Symbolic Logic, Spring Meeting, Los
Angeles, March 1998.
“A Logic of Contexts,” Department of Information Sciences, Griffith
University, and Department of Philosophy, Queensland University, December
“Philosophy, Logic, and Enterprise Modeling,” Department of Mechanical
and Manufacturing Engineering, Melbourne University, October 1996.
“Toward a Science of Information Modeling,” Department of Mechanical
and Manufacturing Engineering, Melbourne University, October 1996.
“Types, Instances, and Process Modeling,” Joint Workshop on Standards
for the use of Models that Define the Data and Processes of Information
Systems (JTC1-96), The Boeing Company, Seattle, September 1996.
“Contexts and Information,”
Common Sense 96: Third Symposium On Logical
Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, Stanford University,
“A Situation Theoretic Approach to the Representation of
Processes,” International Federation for Information Processing
Conference on Enterprise Integration, Heron Island, Australia,
“An Ontology-Based Environment for Enterprise Model Integration,”
Workshop on Basic Issues in Ontology, International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Montreal, August 1995.
“In Defense of Fine-grained Intensions,” Symposium on Property Theory,
American Philosophical Association Pacific Division meeting, San Francisco,
March 1995 (invited panelist).
“Singular Propositions and Modal Logic,” joint Association of Symbolic
Logic /American Philosophical Association Central division meeting, Kansas
City, May 1994.
“Comments on ‘Wittgenstein on the Infinite in Set Theory’,” American
Philosophical Association Pacific Division meeting, San Francisco, March
“Possibilism and Object Theory,” American Philosophical
Association author-meets-critic symposium on Edward Zalta's
Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality,
Portland, March 1992 (invited panelist).
“Representation, Information Flow, and Model Integration,” International
Conference on Engineering Integration and Modeling Technology, Workshop
on Modeling Technology, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation,
Austin, February 1992.
“The Importance of Mathematical Formalization for the Advancement of
Information Modeling Technology,” IDEF Users Group, Fort Worth, September
“Randomness, Algorithmic Complexity, and Mathematical Truth,” joint
American Philosophical Associa- tion/Association for Symbolic Logic symposium
on the philosophical implications of Gregory Chaitin's Algo- rithmic Information
Theory, San Francisco, March 1991 (invited panelist).
“Temporal Actualism and Singular Foreknowledge,” Pacific division
meeting of the American Philosophical Association, San Francisco, March
“Comments on Grosholz's ‘Formal Unities and Real Individuals’,” Philosophy
of Science Association symposium on mathematical and physical objects,
Minneapolis, October 1990.
“Comments on Deutsch's ‘Logic for Contingent Beings’,” Pacific
division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Los
Angeles, March 1990.
“Contingency, Q, and the True Modal Logic,” Pacific division
meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berkeley, January 1990.
“Contingency and Modal Logic,” Arthur Prior Memorial Conference, University
of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, August 1989.
“Qualitative and Quantitative Simulation Model Generation from Manufacturing
System Descriptions,” Engineering Society of Detroit Expert Systems Conference
1989, Detroit, April 1989 (with R. Mayer et al.; I was not present for
the delivery of this paper).
“Platonism in Mathematics,” Baylor University philosophy club, Waco,
“Comments on Landini's ‘Cantor's Power Class Theorem and the Historical
Inseparability of the Simple and Ramified Theory of Logical Types’,” Central
division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Cincinnati,
“A Heretical Approach to Modal Actualism,” Calvin College philosophy
colloquium, March 1988.
“Absolute Creation and the Structure of Propositions,” invited address,
University of Notre Dame Conference on Christian and Theistic Philosophy,
“The Nature of Ordinal Numbers,” University of Oklahoma philosophy
colloquium, Norman, September 1987.
“Formalizing Information Modeling Techniques,” Stanford University
database colloquium, Department of Computer Science, Palo Alto, July 1987.
“Structuralism and Ordinal Numbers,” University of Texas philosophy
colloquium, Austin, May 1987.
“Theism and the Subject Matter of Mathematics,” invited address, the
Association of Christians in the Mathematical Sciences, Calvin College,
“Comments on Jubien's ‘Models of Property Theory’,” delivered at a
symposium on property theory, Western division meeting of the American
Philosophical Association, San Francisco, March 1987.
“Comments on Turner's ‘Generalized Frege Structures’,” also delivered
at the above-mentioned symposium.
“Paradoxes, Large Sets, and Proper Classes,” delivered at the Eastern
division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Washington
D.C., December 1985.
“The Relational Theory of Meaning,” delivered at the University of
Notre Dame, December 1985.
“Property Theory and Second-order Logic,” delivered at the Western
regional meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Stanford University,
Graduate: Mathematical Logic, Metaphysics,
Computability Theory, History and Philosophy of Logic,
Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mathematics.
Undergraduate: Symbolic Logic I and II (includes
first-order logic through completeness, intensional logic,
and (optionally) set theory), Contemporary British and
American Philosophy, Metaphyics, Philosophy of Language,
Philosophy of Religion, Introduction to Logic,
Introduction to Philosophy, Contemporary Moral Issues.
Directed Studies: Advanced Logic, Modal Logic, Set
Theory, Model Theory, Computability Theory, Montague Grammar,
Philosophy of Mathematics
Title: “Mathematical Realism and the Theory of Sets”
Advisors: Penelope Maddy and Alvin Plantinga